- Fecal Incontinence
|Parental, Perinatal, and Childhood Risk Factors for Development of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Systematic Review
J Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2020 Oct 30;26(4):437-446. doi: 10.5056/jnm20109.
En X S Low 1, Maimouna N K Al Mandhari 2, Charles C Herndon 3, Evelyn X L Loo 4 5, Elizabeth H Tham 5 6, Kewin T H Siah 2 7
Background/aims: Adverse early life experiences are associated with the development of stroke, cancer, diabetes, and chronic respiratory and ischemic heart diseases. These negative experiences may also play a role in the development of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)--a functional gastrointestinal disease. This review discusses the research to date on the parental, perinatal, and childhood risk and protective factors associated with the development of IBS.
Methods: A literature search was completed for studies published between 1966 and 2018 that investigated premorbid factors occurring during the perinatal and childhood periods as well as parental factors that were associated with the development of IBS.
Results: Twenty-seven studies fulfilled the review criteria. Risk factors that appeared in more than one study included: (1) parental IBS, substance abuse, parental punishment, and rejection as parental risk factors; (2) low birth weight as a perinatal risk factor; and (3) crowded living conditions in low-income families, childhood anxiety, depression, or child abuse as childhood risk factors. Protective factors for IBS were emotional warmth from the parents and being born to an older mother.
Conclusions: More effort is needed to identify what fetal and maternal factors are associated with low birth weight and IBS. A well-executed prospective birth cohort with a collection of bio-samples and functional data will provide a better understanding of how adversity and the interplay between genetics, epigenetics, and numerous risk factors affect the development of IBS.