Abstract

A Multimodal Intervention Using Nonopioid Analgesics Is Associated With Reduced Intravenous Opioid Exposure Among Hospitalized Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

Am J Gastroenterol. 2020 Sep;115(9):1474-1485.doi: 10.14309/ajg.0000000000000806.

Rahul S Dalal 1, Sonali Palchaudhuri 2, Christopher K Snider 3, Yevgeniy Gitelman 4, Mihir Brahmbhatt 4, Nikhil K Mull 4, Shivan J Mehta 2 3, Christopher Klock 5, James D Lewis 2 5, Gary R Lichtenstein 2

 
     

Author information

  • 1Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Endoscopy, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
  • 2Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
  • 3Penn Medicine Center for Health Care Innovation, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
  • 4Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
  • 5Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Abstract

Introduction: Opioid use in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with increased mortality. Previous interventions targeting reduced intravenous opioid (IVOPI) exposure for all patients admitted to a general medical unit have decreased total opioid use without compromising pain control. We therefore performed a prospective evaluation of a multimodal intervention encouraging the use of nonopioid alternatives to reduce IVOPI exposure among patients with IBD hospitalized at our institution.

Methods: This was a prospective evaluation of a multimodal intervention to reduce IVOPI use among patients with IBD aged ≥18 years admitted to a general medical unit at a large urban academic medical center from January 1, 2019, to June 30, 2019. Intravenous and total (all routes) opioid exposures were measured as proportions and intravenous morphine milligram equivalents/patient day and compared with preintervention (January 1, 2018, to December 31, 2018) data. Hospital length of stay (LOS), 30-day readmission rates (RRs), and pain scores (1-10 scale) were also assessed.

Results: Our study involved 345 patients with IBD with similar baseline characteristics in preintervention (n = 241) and intervention (n = 104) periods. Between study periods, we observed a significant reduction in the proportion of patients receiving IVOPIs (43.6% vs 30.8%, P = 0.03) and total opioid dose exposure (15.6 vs 8.5 intravenous morphine mg equivalents/d, P = 0.02). We observed similar mean pain scores (3.9 vs 3.7, P = 0.55) and significantly reduced mean LOS (7.2 vs 5.3 days, P = 0.03) and 30-day RRs (21.6% vs 11.5%, P = 0.03).

Discussion: A multimodal intervention was associated with reduced opioid exposure, LOS, and 30-day RRs for hospitalized patients with IBD. Additional research is needed to determine long-term benefits of reduced opioid exposure in this population.

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