Sex-based differences in inflammatory bowel diseases: a review

Therap Adv Gastroenterol. 2020 Apr 28;13:1756284820915043.doi: 10.1177/1756284820915043. eCollection 2020.

Sheila D Rustgi 1, Maia Kayal 1, Shailja C Shah 2


Author information

  • 1Division of Gastroenterology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, USA.
  • 2Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 2215 Garland Avenue, Medical Research Building IV, Room 1030-C (Mail), Nashville, TN 37240-0002, USA.

Free PMC article


Sex-based differences in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pathogenesis, disease course, and response to therapy have been increasingly recognized, however, not fully understood. Experimental and translational models have been leveraged to investigate hypothesized mechanisms for these observed differences, including the potential modifying role of sex hormones and sex-dependent (epi)genetic and gut microbiome changes. The primary objective of this review is to comprehensively describe sex-based differences in IBD including epidemiology, pathogenesis, phenotypic differences, therapeutic response, and outcomes.

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