Abstract

Systematic review with meta-analysis: risk of adverse pregnancy-related outcomes in inflammatory bowel disease

Tandon P1,2, Govardhanam V2, Leung K1,2, Maxwell C3, Huang V1,2.

 
     

Author information

1 Division of Gastroenterology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

2 Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

3 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The effect of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) on pregnancy-related outcomes remains unknown.

AIM: To determine the risk of adverse maternal, placental and obstetric outcomes in IBD METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase and Cochrane library through May 2019 for studies reporting adverse maternal, placental and obstetric outcomes in patients with IBD. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for these outcomes in patients with IBD compared to healthy controls.

RESULTS: Fifty-three studies were included (7917 IBD pregnancies and 3253 healthy control pregnancies). Caesarean delivery was more common in patients with IBD compared to healthy controls (OR 1.79, 95% CI, 1.16-2.77). This remained significant for UC (OR 1.80, 95% CI, 1.21-2.90) but not CD (OR 1.48, 95% CI, 0.94-2.34). Similarly, gestational diabetes occurred more commonly in IBD (OR 2.96, 95% CI, 1.47-5.98). The incidences of placental diseases were 2.0% (95% CI, 0.9%-3.1%) for pre-eclampsia, 3.3% (95% CI, 0%-7.2%) for placental abruption, 0.5% (95% CI, 0.2%-0.9%) for placenta previa and 0.3% (95% CI, 0%-0.5%) for chorioamnionitis. Patients with IBD were more likely to experience preterm prelabour rupture of membranes (OR 12.10, 95% CI, 2.15-67.98), but not early pregnancy loss (OR 1.63, 95% CI 0.49-5.43). Anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy was not associated with chorioamnionitis (OR 1.12, 95% CI, 0.16-7.67), early pregnancy loss (OR 1.49, 95% CI, 0.83-2.64) or placenta previa (OR 1.58, 95% CI, 0.30-8.47).

CONCLUSIONS: Gestational diabetes and preterm prelabour rupture of membranes occurs more commonly in patients with IBD, although the incidence of placental diseases remains low.A

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