Abstract

Popular Diet Trends for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Claims and Evidence

Weber AT1, Shah ND2, Sauk J3, Limketkai BN3. Curr Treat Options Gastroenterol. 2019 Nov 8. doi: 10.1007/s11938-019-00248-z. [Epub ahead of print]

 
     

Author information

Center for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Vatche & Tamar Manoukian Division of Digestive Diseases, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10945 Le Conte Avenue, Suite 2114, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA. andrew.todd.weber@gmail.com.

Comprehensive Cancer Center, Stanford Health Care, Palo Alto, CA, USA.

Center for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Vatche & Tamar Manoukian Division of Digestive Diseases, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10945 Le Conte Avenue, Suite 2114, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA.

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) frequently look to diet to improve symptoms. Although regularly asked for dietary guidance, gastroenterologists are often unprepared to provide evidence-based recommendations. This review will summarize popular diets claiming benefits in IBD, as well as current data evaluating their efficacies.

RECENT FINDINGS: The Specific Carbohydrate Diet has demonstrated symptom improvement and even mucosal healing; however, large trials and prospective data are lacking. The low FODMAP diet has shown benefit for functional symptoms in IBD, yet efficacy regarding inflammation is lacking. Large studies for the gluten-free diet yielded mixed results in IBD outcomes, while suggesting a negative impact on psychological well-being. Data on an "anti-inflammatory" diet were positive but remain severely limited. A currently planned large trial for the Mediterranean diet in IBD may provide much needed clinical data. We provide an overview of frequently utilized diets in IBD. The body of evidence does not currently support clear dietary recommendations in IBD, as larger, prospective studies are needed.

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