- Fecal Incontinence
|Bone Health in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Chedid VG1, Kane SV2. J Clin Densitom. 2019 Jul 13. pii: S1094-6950(19)30051-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jocd.2019.07.009. [Epub ahead of print]
1 Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic Rochester, MN, USA.
2 Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic Rochester, MN, USA. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory medical condition with relapses and remission. Metabolic bone disease, including osteoporosis, is associated with IBD and imparts a significant morbidity if pathologic fractures were to occur. There has been a significant amount of research that evaluated the pathophysiology and associations between IBD and osteoporosis. Although corticosteroids contribute to the risk of low bone mineral density, osteoporosis and fractures, older age, female gender, smoking, and family history of fracture have been shown to contribute. Additionally, intestinal inflammation affects bone resorption and formation through proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-a, interleukin-1, and interleukin-6 further accelerating bone loss. Little information is available on standardizing screening or treatment. It is important to recognize the risk factors that are associated with IBD and osteoporosis to identify the patient population at risk and initiate treatment/prevention strategies early. Treatment can include calcium, vitamin D, or bisphosphonates. Some studies showed benefit of treating the underlying IBD to improve bone mineral density.