Chronic Inflammatory Diseases: Are We Ready for Microbiota-based Dietary Intervention?

Viennois E1, Gewirtz AT1, Chassaing B2. Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019 Mar 2. pii: S2352-345X(19)30024-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jcmgh.2019.02.008. [Epub ahead of print]


Author information

Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia.

Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia; Neuroscience Institute, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia. Electronic address: bchassaing@gsu.edu.


The last 15 years have witnessed the emergence of a new field of research that focuses on the roles played by the intestinal microbiota in health and disease. This research field has produced accumulating evidence indicating that dysregulation of host-microbiota interactions contributes to a range of chronic inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory bowel diseases, colorectal cancer, and metabolic syndrome. Although dysregulation of the microbiota can take complex forms, in some cases, specific bacterial species that can drive specific clinical outcomes have been identified. Among the numerous factors influencing the intestinal microbiota composition, diet is a central actor, wherein numerous dietary factors can beneficially or detrimentally impact the host/microbiota relationship. This review will highlight recent literature that has advanced understanding of microbiota-diet-disease interplay, with a central focus on the following question: Are we ready to use intestinal microbiota composition-based personalized dietary interventions to treat chronic inflammatory diseases?

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