Abstract

Efficacy of Combination Antibiotic Therapy for Refractory Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Breton J1, Kastl A1, Hoffmann N2, Rogers R3, Grossman AB1, Mamula P1, Kelsen JR1, Baldassano RN1, Albenberg L1. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2019 Feb 4. doi: 10.1093/ibd/izz006. [Epub ahead of print]

 
     

Author information

1 Division of Gastroenterology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Pediatrics, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

2 Division of General Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Pediatrics, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

3 Biostatistics and Data Management Core, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that oral combination antibiotics may improve disease course in refractory inflammatorybowel disease (IBD). Here, we describe the use of combination oral antibiotics as salvage therapy in refractory ulcerative colitis (UC), Crohn's colitis, and IBD-unclassified (IBD-U) at a large pediatric IBD center.

METHODS: Clinical response, disease activity indices, adverse events, and clinical outcomes were measured up to 1 year after antibiotic treatment in this retrospective cohort study of children with medically refractory IBD colitis.

RESULTS: Sixty-three patients with refractory UC, Crohn's colitis, and IBD-U (median age [interquartile range {IQR}], 15.3 [11.2-16.5] years; median disease duration [IQR], 1.2 [0.41-4.6] years) received a combination of 3 or 4 oral antibiotics (most commonly amoxicillin, metronidazole, and either doxycycline or ciprofloxacin) for a median (IQR) of 29 (21-58) days. Thirty-four patients (54%) were deemed corticosteroid-refractory or -dependent, with the majority (62/63) having a previous or present loss of response or primary nonresponse to anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNFα) therapy. Use of combination antibiotics led to a significant decrease in median Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis Activity Index (PUCAI) score (IQR) from 55 (40-65) to 10 (0-40; P < 0.0001) over 3 ± 1 weeks, with 25/63 (39.7%) patients achieving clinical remission (PUCAI <10 points). The clinical benefits of oral antibiotics were independent of anti-TNFα therapy optimization. Among children entering clinical remission (n = 25), only 1 patient required surgery at 1-year follow-up, vs 10 patients in the nonresponder group. Negative predictors of response to combination antibiotics were exposure to doxycycline (odds ratio [OR], 0.25; 95% CI, 0.08-0.76) and PUCAI ≥65 at baseline (OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.05-0.74).

CONCLUSIONS: Oral combination antibiotics appears to be an effective rescue and steroid-sparing therapy to induce remission in the short term in patients failing a biologic.

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