Risk of Myocardial Infarction in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Population-based National Study

Panhwar MS1, Mansoor E2, Al-Kindi SG3, Sinh P2, Katz J2, Oliveira GH3, Cooper GS2, Ginwalla M3. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2018 Nov 30. doi: 10.1093/ibd/izy354. [Epub ahead of print]

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1 Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Ohio, USA.

2 Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Ohio, USA.

3 Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Harrington Heart and Vascular Institute, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Ohio, USA.


BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Chronic inflammation is linked to increased cardiovascular risk. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract and elevated pro-inflammatory markers. The association between IBD and myocardial infarction (MI) is not well understood. We sought to elucidate this risk using a large database.

METHODS: We reviewed data from a large commercial database (Explorys, IBM Watson) that aggregates electronic medical records from 26 nationwide health care systems. Using systemized nomenclature of medicine-clinical terms, we identified adult patients (20 to 65 years) with a diagnosis of IBD-ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD)-who had active records between August 2013 and August 2018. We then examined the risk of MI in patients with or without IBD.

RESULTS: Out of 29,090,220 patients, 131,680 (0.45%) had UC, and 158,750 (0.55%) had CD. Prevalence of MI was higher in patients with UC and CD versus non-IBD patients (UC 6.7% vs CD 8.8% vs non-IBD 3.3%, odds ratio [OR] for UC 2.09 [2.04 -2.13], and CD 2.79 [2.74-2.85]. The odds of MI in IBD patients overall were highest in younger patients and decreased with age (age 30-34 years: OR 12.05 [11.16-13.01], age 65+ years: OR 2.08 [2.04-2.11]). After adjusting for age, race, sex, and traditional cardiovascular risk factor, IBD conferred greater odds of MI (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.25 [1.24-1.27]).

CONCLUSION: In this large cohort, IBD is associated with significantly increased MI compared with non-IBD patients. The relative risk of MI was highest in younger patients and decreased with age. These findings emphasize the need for aggressive risk factor reduction in IBD.

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