Evolving role of diet in the pathogenesis and treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases

Levine A1,2, Sigall Boneh R1,2, Wine E3. Gut. 2018 May 18. pii: gutjnl-2017-315866. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2017-315866. [Epub ahead of print]

Author information

1 Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition Unit, Edith Wolfson Medical Center, Holon, Israel.

2 Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

3 Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.


Recent advances in basic and clinical science over the last 3 years have dramatically altered our appreciation of the role of diet in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The marked increase in incidence of these diseases along with the important role of non-genetic susceptibility among patients with IBD has highlighted that these diseaseshave a strong environmental component. Progress in the field of microbiome and IBD has demonstrated that microbiome appears to play an important role in pathogenesis, and that diet may in turn impact the composition and functionality of the microbiome. Uncontrolled clinical studies have demonstrated that various dietary therapies such as exclusive enteral nutrition and newly developed exclusion diets might be potent tools for induction of remission at disease onset, for patients failing biologic therapy, as a treatment for diseasecomplications and in reducing the need for surgery. We review these advances from bench to bedside, along with the need for better clinical trials to support these interventions.

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