Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Endoscopy, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, USA.
Division of Digestive Diseases & Nutrition, Department of Medicine, University of South Florida, USA.
Department of Psychiatry, Brigham and Women's Hospital, USA.
Suicidal behavior in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been minimally explored. We aimed to determine United States (US) nationally representative prevalence estimates of suicidal ideation (SI) and suicide/self-inflicted injury (S/SII) among hospitalized adults with IBD and to examine trends in suicidal behavior over time.
A retrospective cross-sectional study using National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample data (2006-2011) identified adults with Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC), SI or S/SII, and multiple comorbid risk factors for suicidal behavior.
We identified 331,777 (estimated 1.64 million) IBD-related hospitalizations (64% CD, 36% UC) and 39,787,239 (estimated 196.08 million) hospitalizations among the general US population. Among IBD-related hospitalizations, 2502 discharges were associated with SI (prevalence 0.76%) and 1104 with S/SII (prevalence 0.33%). Both were significantly greater in CD versus UC (P < 0.001). Relative to the general US population, IBD patients were significantly less likely to demonstrate suicidal behavior: (SI:0.33% versus 0.59%, P < 0.001) (S/SII:0.75% versus 1.04%, P < 0.001). Multivariable logistic regression revealed that IBD was associated with decreased odds of SI (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.62, 95%CI 0.60-0.65) and S/SII (aOR 0.43, 95%CI 0.40-0.45) relative to the general population, and suicidal behavior was lower in IBD compared to disease-related controls with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Similar increasing trends in suicidal behavior were observed in IBD and non-IBD populations (2006-2011).
In this large US database, SI or S/SII occurred in over 1% of the IBD population and was increased in CD versus UC.