Department of Anatomy, Cell Biology and Physiological Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut (AUB), Beirut, Lebanon
Department of Experimental Biomedicine and Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Histology, (BIONEC), University of Palermo, Italy
School of Dentistry, Lebanese University, Hadath, Lebanon
Internal Medicine, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy
Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Rochester, MI, United States of America
Laboratoire de vectorologie et Trasfert de genes, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif Cedex, France
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, have important extraintestinal manifestations, notably in the oral cavity. These oral manifestations can constitute important clinical clues in the diagnosis and management of IBD, and include changes at the immune and bacterial levels. Aphthous ulcers, pyostomatitis vegetans, cobblestoning and gingivitis are important oral findings frequently observed in IBD patients. Their presentations vary considerably and might be well diagnosed and distinguished from other oral lesions. Infections, drug side effects, deficiencies in some nutrients and many other diseasesinvolved with oral manifestations should also be taken into account. This article discusses the most recent findings on the oral manifestations of IBD with a focus on bacterial modulations and immune changes. It also includes an overview on options for management of the oral lesions of IBD.