Center for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Digestive Disease Institute, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH, USA.
Background: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in patients with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) has been increasingly recognized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in patients with pouch and CDI. Methods: All consecutive patients that underwent FMT for CDI from 2012 to 2016 were extracted from our IRB-approved, prospectively maintained Registry of Pouch Disorders. The primary outcome was negative stool tests for Clostridium difficile after FMT and the secondary outcomes were symptomatic and endoscopic responses. Results: A total of 13 patients were included in this study, with 10 being Caucasian males (76.9%). All patients had underlying ulcerative colitis for J pouch surgery. After a mean of 2.8±0.8 courses of antibiotic treatments was given and failed, 22 sessions of FMT were administered with an average of 1.7±1.1 sessions each. Within the 22 sessions, 16 were given via pouchoscopy, 4 via esophagogastroduodenoscopy and 2 via enemas. All patients tested negative on C. difficile polymerase chain reaction (PCR) after the initial FMT with a total of 7/12 (58.3%) documented patients showed symptomatic improvements and 3/11 (27.3%) patients showed endoscopic improvement according to the modified Pouchitis Disease Activity Index. During the follow-up of 1.2±1.1 years, there were a total of five patients (38.5%) that had recurrence after the successful initial treatment and four of them were successfully treated again with FMT. Conclusions: FMT appeared to be effective in eradication of CDI in patients with ileal pouches. However, FMT had a modest impact on endoscopic inflammation and recurrence after FMT and recurrence was common.