1*Department of Clinical Health Psychology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; †IBD Clinical and Research Centre, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; and ‡Department of Internal Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.
Self-efficacy describes a person's confidence in their ability to manage demands, and is predictive of health outcomes in chronic disease such as hospitalization and health status. However, meaningful measurement must be domain (e.g., disease) specific. This study aims to provide validation of the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Self-Efficacy scale (IBD-SE), using a population-based IBD sample.
Manitoba IBD Cohort Study participants completed a survey and clinical interview at a mean of 12 years postdiagnosis (n = 121 Crohn's disease; n = 108 ulcerative colitis), which included validated measures of psychological functioning, disability, disease-specific quality of life, perceived health, and current and recent disease activity, in addition to the IBD-SE.
The IBD-SE had high internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.97), and a 4-factor structure was confirmed. Construct validity was demonstrated as follows: the IBD-SE was strongly correlated with mastery (r = 0.53), highly correlated in the expected directions with measures of psychological well-being (r = 0.70), stress (r = -0.78), distress (r = -0.71), disability (r = -0.48), disease-specific quality of life (r = 0.68), and overall perceived health (r = 0.52) (all P < 0.001). Those with currently inactive disease had higher self-efficacy than the active disease group (Crohn's disease: mean = 232 versus 195, P < 0.001; ulcerative colitis: mean = 233 versus 202, P < 0.01), with similar findings for recent symptomatic disease activity.
The IBD-SE is a reliable, valid, and sensitive measure as demonstrated in this population-based sample, supporting its utility in IBD. Because self-efficacy is a modifiable psychological characteristic that can contribute to positive health outcomes, the IBD-SE may prove to be a valuable instrument for research and in targeted intervention with IBD patients.