1aPediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease Research Center, Holon bWolfson Medical Center, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:
An increasing body of evidence has linked diet to inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Most of our current knowledge pertains to the link between diet and Crohn's disease. Exclusive enteral nutrition and partial enteral nutrition are the best known dietary intervention for the induction of remission and maintenance of remission in Crohn's disease both in children and in adults, but the mechanism whereby these interventions may cause or maintain remission and mucosal healing has remained elusive.
Recent studies have shed light on the possible mechanisms of response to dietary intervention. Epidemiological and rodent model studies over the last year have supplied us with several dietary candidates for an effect of diet on inflammation and disease pathogenesis. Others have shed insight into the effect of diet on dysbiosis and the microbiota. An elimination diet based on some of these candidates has shown clinical efficacy, and bridged the knowledge obtained from rodent models to a human intervention.
These studies may allow better understanding of the pathogenesis of IBD and provide new tools to treat these difficult diseases. Elimination diets based on the identification of deleterious dietary components may pave the way for an improved control of the disease in the future. VIDEO ABSTRACT: http://links.lww.com/COG/A10.