Deep Dive Into MicroRNAs in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2023 Jun 1;29(6):986-999. doi: 10.1093/ibd/izac250.


Jaber Alfaifi 1 2Adeline Germain 1 2Anne-Charlotte Heba 2Djésia Arnone 2Laura Gailly 2Ndeye Coumba Ndiaye 2Emilie Viennois 3Bénédicte Caron 2 4Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet 2 4Natacha Dreumont 2


Author information

1Department of Hepatobiliary, Colorectal, and Digestive Surgery, Nancy University Hospital, University of Lorraine, Nancy, France.

2NGERE (Nutrition-Genetics and Exposure to Environmental Risks), INSERM, University of Lorraine, Nancy, France.

3INSERM U1149, Center of Research on Inflammation, Université de Paris, Paris, France.

4Department of Gastroenterology, Nancy University Hospital, University of Lorraine, Nancy, France.


Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, is thought to develop in genetically predisposed individuals as a consequence of complex interactions between dysregulated inflammatory stimuli, immunological responses, and environmental factors. The pathogenesis of IBD has yet to be fully understood. The global increase in the incidence of IBD suggests a gap in the current understanding of the disease. The development of a new diagnostic tool for inflammatory bowel disease that is both less invasive and more cost-effective would allow for better management of this condition. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of noncoding RNAs with important roles as posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression, which has led to new insights into understanding IBD. Using techniques such as microarrays and real-time polymerase chain reactions, researchers have investigated the patterns in which patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis show alterations in the expression of miRNA in tissue, blood, and feces. These miRNAs are found to be differentially expressed in IBD and implicated in its pathogenesis through alterations in autophagy, intestinal barrier, and immune homeostasis. In this review, we discuss the miRNA expression profiles associated with IBD in tissue, peripheral blood, and feces and provide an overview of the miRNA mechanisms involved in IBD.

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