Environmental risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease

United European Gastroenterol J. 2022 Dec;10(10):1047-1053.doi: 10.1002/ueg2.12319. Epub 2022 Oct 19.


Noreen Singh 1Charles N Bernstein 2


Author information

1Department of Internal Medicine, Max Rady College of Medicine, Rady Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

2University of Manitoba IBD Clinical and Research Centre, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.


Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic, progressive immune-mediated inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract. Environmental risk factors play a role in developing either type of IBD, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis; although the exact mechanism is still unknown. Herein, we review environmental risks from early life exposures, lifestyle and hygiene, vaccinations, surgeries, exposure to drugs and gastrointestinal pathogens that may increase the risk of developing IBD.

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