- Fecal Incontinence
|Constipation in Children and Adolescents
Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2022 Oct 14;(Forthcoming):arztebl.m2022.0309.doi: 10.3238/arztebl.m2022.0309. Online ahead of print.
Background: According to a population-based study, approximately 6.8% of children and adolescents in Germany suffer from acute or chronic constipation. It can be of organic or functional origin and may be associated with comorbid disturbances, particularly fecal incontinence.
Methods: We selectively searched the PubMed and Google Scholar databases for articles with the keywords "constipation," "children and adolescents," and "incontinence". Recommendations are based on the AWMF guideline on constipation and fecal incontinence and on international guidelines and reviews.
Results: More than 90% of cases of chronic constipation are of functional origin. Organic causes vary with age and call for targeted differential diagnosis. Invasive tests are only rarely necessary. Functional constipation may be associated with fecal and urinary incontinence, and the relative risk of urinary tract infections is 2.2 to 6.5. There may be associated psychological symptoms and mental disorders in 30-50% of cases. The cornerstone of treatment is patient and parent education, along with laxative medication and toilet training. Instructional programs have been found effective in otherwise refractory cases.
Conclusion: The treatment of constipation in childhood should begin as soon as the differential diagnostic evaluation is completed. The education of parents, follow-up at close intervals, and drug treatment and behavioral therapy that are adapted to the symptoms can improve quality of life.