- Fecal Incontinence
|Bile Acid and Gut Microbiota in Irritable Bowel Syndrome
J Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2022 Oct 30;28(4):549-561. doi: 10.5056/jnm22129.
1Medically Associated Science and Technology (MAST) Program, Cedars-Sinai, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
2Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
3Karsh Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Cedars-Sinai, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
Gut microbiota and their metabolites like bile acid (BA) have been investigated as causes of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms. Primary BAs are synthesized and conjugated in the liver and released into the duodenum. BA biotransformation by gut microbiota begins in the intestine and results in production of a broad range of secondary BAs. Deconjugation is considered the gateway reaction for further modification and is mediated by bile salt hydrolase, which is widely expressed by the gut microbiota. However, gut bacteria that convert primary BAs to secondary BAs belong to a limited number of species, mainly Clostridiales. Like gut microbiota modify BA profile, BAs can shape gut microbiota via direct and indirect actions. BAs have prosecretory effects and regulates gut motility. BAs can also affect gut sensitivity. Because of the vital role of the gut microbiota and BAs in gut function, their bidirectional relationship may contribute to the pathophysiology of IBS. Individuals with IBS have been reported to have altered microbial profiles and modified BA profiles. A significant increase in fecal primary BA and a corresponding decrease in secondary BA have been observed in IBS with predominant diarrhea. In addition, primary BA was positively correlated with IBS symptoms. In IBS with predominant diarrhea, bacteria with reduced abundance mainly belonged to the genera in Ruminococcaceae and exhibited a negative correlation with primary BAs. Integrating the analysis of the gut microbiota and BAs could better understanding of IBS pathophysiology. The gap in this field needs to be further filled in the future.