- Fecal Incontinence
|Mechanisms of mucosal healing: treating inflammatory bowel disease without immunosuppression?
Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2022 Aug;19(8):493-507.doi: 10.1038/s41575-022-00604-y. Epub 2022 Apr 19.
1Division of Immunology and Allergy, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet and University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. firstname.lastname@example.org.
2Gastroenterology unit, Department of Gastroenterology, Dermatovenereology and Rheumatology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
3Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
4Gastroenterology unit, Department of Gastroenterology, Dermatovenereology and Rheumatology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. email@example.com.
5Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. firstname.lastname@example.org.
Almost all currently available treatments for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) act by inhibiting inflammation, often blocking specific inflammatory molecules. However, given the infectious and neoplastic disease burden associated with chronic immunosuppressive therapy, the goal of attaining mucosal healing without immunosuppression is attractive. The absence of treatments that directly promote mucosal healing and regeneration in IBD could be linked to the lack of understanding of the underlying pathways. The range of potential strategies to achieve mucosal healing is diverse. However, the targeting of regenerative mechanisms has not yet been achieved for IBD. Stem cells provide hope as a regenerative treatment and are used in limited clinical situations. Growth factors are available for the treatment of short bowel syndrome but have not yet been applied in IBD. The therapeutic application of organoid culture and stem cell therapy to generate new intestinal tissue could provide a novel mechanism to restore barrier function in IBD. Furthermore, blocking key effectors of barrier dysfunction (such as MLCK or damage-associated molecular pattern molecules) has shown promise in experimental IBD. Here, we review the diversity of molecular targets available to directly promote mucosal healing, experimental models to identify new potential pathways and some of the anticipated potential therapies for IBD.