Abstract

The metabolic nature of inflammatory bowel diseases

Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2022 Jul 29. doi: 10.1038/s41575-022-00658-y.Online ahead of print.

 

Timon E Adolph 1Moritz Meyer 2Julian Schwärzler 2Lisa Mayr 2Felix Grabherr 2Herbert Tilg 3

 
     

Author information

1Department of Internal Medicine I, Gastroenterology, Hepatology, Endocrinology & Metabolism, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria. timon-erik.adolph@i-med.ac.at.

2Department of Internal Medicine I, Gastroenterology, Hepatology, Endocrinology & Metabolism, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.

3Department of Internal Medicine I, Gastroenterology, Hepatology, Endocrinology & Metabolism, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria. herbert.tilg@i-med.ac.at.

Abstract

Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, phenotypically comprising a spectrum of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), spread globally during the westernization of lifestyle and dietary habits over the past few decades. Here, we review experimental and clinical evidence for the metabolic nature of gut inflammation in IBD and delineate distinct parallels to the inflammatory state in metabolic diseases. Experimental evidence indicates that excessive intake of specific macronutrients in a Western diet fuels an inflammatory response in the gut by exploiting sensors of innate immunity and perturbation of gut microbial metabolism. Genetic IBD risk partly affects metabolism and stress signalling of innate immunity, and immunometabolism controls susceptibility to gut inflammation. Epidemiological and clinical studies indicate that specific nutrients in the Western diet pose a risk for the development of IBD and a poor disease course. Translational studies in IBD indicate perturbation of energy metabolism in immune cells and perturbation of gut microbial metabolism, which can be shaped by diet. In turn, dietary restriction by exclusive enteral nutrition induces remission in patients with IBD. Collectively, these studies support a metabolic underpinning of gut inflammation in IBD as described for metabolic inflammation in obesity and related disorders.

 

 

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