- Fecal Incontinence
|Low FODMAP diet in irritable bowel syndrome: a review of recent clinical trials and meta-analyses
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2022 Sep 1;25(5):341-347doi: 10.1097/MCO.0000000000000854. Epub 2022 Jul 16.
1Department of Nutritional Sciences, King's College London, London, UK.
2Deakin University, Institute for Mental and Physical Health and Clinical Translation (IMPACT), Food & Mood Centre, Geelong, Victoria, Australia.
Purpose of review: The low fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyol (FODMAP) diet is widely used in the dietary management of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The aim of this review is to summarize recent evidence regarding the use of the low FODMAP diet in IBS and other gastrointestinal disorders from recent clinical trials and meta-analyses.
Recent findings: Several recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses support the use of low FODMAP restriction for global symptoms in IBS in the short term. Uncontrolled follow-up studies show that at least 50% of individuals experience symptom relief following restriction, reintroduction and personalization in the long term. Although evidence from comparative trials in IBS suggests potential benefit of less burdensome approaches (e.g. standard IBS diet and low lactose diet) many studies are insufficiently powered. One established mechanism is colonic gas production that may induce pain signalling measurable in the brain, however altered gastrointestinal epithelial integrity and shifts in microbiome composition and function may also be involved.
Summary: Quality trials of the low FODMAP diet are emerging and have been transformational in supporting the widespread application to IBS management in some areas (e.g. short-term effectiveness), whereas other areas still require considerable improvements in research evidence (e.g. long-term effectiveness, mechanisms and educational delivery).