- Fecal Incontinence
|Etrolizumab versus infliximab for the treatment of moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis (GARDENIA): a randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, phase 3 study
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2022 Feb;7(2):118-127.doi: 10.1016/S2468-1253(21)00294-6. Epub 2021 Nov 17.
Silvio Danese 1, Jean-Frederic Colombel 2, Milan Lukas 3, Javier P Gisbert 4, Geert D'Haens 5, Bu'hussain Hayee 6, Remo Panaccione 7, Hyun-Soo Kim 8, Walter Reinisch 9, Helen Tyrrell 10, Young S Oh 11, Swati Tole 11, Akiko Chai 11, Kirsten Chamberlain-James 10, Meina Tao Tang 11, Stefan Schreiber 12, GARDENIA Study Group
GARDENIA Study Group: Nazimuddin Aboo, Tariq Ahmad, Xavier Aldeguer Mante, Matthieu Allez, Sven Almer, Romain Altwegg, Montserrat Andreu Garcia, Ramesh Arasaradnam, Sandro Ardizzone, Alessandro Armuzzi, Ian Arnott, Guy Aumais, Irit Avni-Biron, Peter Barrow, Ian Beales, Fernando Bermejo San Jose, Abraham Bezuidenhout, Livia Biancone, Michael Blaeker, Stuart Bloom, Bernd Bokemeyer, Fabrizio Bossa, Peter Bossuyt, Guillaume Bouguen, Yoram Bouhnik, Gerd Bouma, Raymond Bourdages, Arnaud Bourreille, Christian Boustiere, Tomas Brabec, Stephan Brand, Carsten Buening, Anthony Buisson, Guillaume Cadiot, Xavier Calvet Calvo, Franck Carbonnel, Daniel Carpio, Jae Hee Cheon, Naoki Chiba, Camelia Chioncel, Nicoleta-Claudia Cimpoeru, Martin Clodi, Gino Roberto Corazza, Rocco Cosintino, Jose Cotter, Thomas Creed, Fraser Cummings, Silvio Danese, Gian Luigi De' Angelis, Marc De Maeyer, Milind Desai, Etienne Desilets, Pierre Desreumaux, Olivier Dewit, Geert D'Haens, Johanna Dinter, Ecaterina Daniela Dobru, Tomas Douda, Dan Lucian Dumitrascu, Matthias Ebert, Ana Echarri Piudo, Magdy Elkhashab, Chang Soo Eun, Brian Feagan, Roland Fejes, Catarina Fidalgo, Sigal Fishman, Bernard Flourié, Sharyle Fowler, Walter Fries, Csaba Fulop, Mathurin Fumery, Gyula G Kiss, Sonja Gassner, Daniel Gaya, Bastianello Germanà, Liliana Simona Gheorghe, Cyrielle Gilletta de Saint Joseph, Paolo Gionchetti, Adrian-Eugen Goldis, Raquel Gonçalves, Jean-Charles Grimaud, Tibor Gyökeres, Herve Hagege, Andrei Haidar, Heinz Hartmann, Peter Hasselblatt, Buhussain Hayee, Xavier Hebuterne, Per Hellström, Pieter Hindryckx, Helena Hlavova, Frank Hoentjen, Stefanie Howaldt, Ludek Hrdlicka, Kyu Chan Huh, Maria Isabel Iborra Colomino, Florentina Ionita-Radu, Peter Irving, Jørgen Jahnsen, ByungIk Jang, Jeroen Jansen, Seong Woo Jeon, Rodrigo Jover Martinez, Pascal Juillerat, Per Karlén, Arthur Kaser, Radan Keil, Deepak Kejariwal, Dan Keret, Reena Khanna, Dongwoo Kim, Duk Hwan Kim, Hyo-Jong Kim, Hyun-Soo Kim, Joo Sung Kim, Kueongok Kim, Kyung-Jo Kim, Sung Kook Kim, Young-Ho Kim, Jochen Klaus, Anna Kohn, Vladimir Kojecky, Ja Seol Koo, Robert Kozak, Milan Kremer, Tunde Kristof, Frederik Kruger, David Laharie, Adi Lahat-Zok, Evgeny Landa, Jonghun Lee, Kang-Moon Lee, Kook Lae Lee, YooJin Lee, Frank Lenze, Wee Chian Lim, Jimmy Limdi, James Lindsay, Pilar Lopez Serrano, Edouard Louis, Stefan Lueth, Milan Lukas, Giovanni Maconi, Fazia Mana, Steven Mann, John Mansfield, Santino Marchi, Marco Marino, John Marshall, Maria Dolores Martin Arranz, Radu-Bogdan Mateescu, John McLaughlin, Simon McLaughlin, Ehud Melzer, Jessica Mertens, Paul Mitrut, Tamas Molnar, Vinciane Muls, Pushpakaran Munuswamy, Charles Murray, Timna Naftali, Visvakuren Naidoo, Yusuf Nanabhay, Lucian Negreanu, Augustin Nguyen, Thomas Ochsenkuehn, Ambrogio Orlando, Remo Panaccione, Julian Panes Diaz, Maya Paritsky, Dong Il Park, Jihye Park, Luca Pastorelli, Markus Peck-Radosavljevic, Farhad Peerani, Javier Perez Gisbert, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurence Picon, Marieke Pierik, Terry Ponich, Francisco Portela, Maartens Jeroen Prins, Istvan Racz, Khan Fareed Rahman, Jean-Marie Reimund, Max Reinshagen, Xavier Roblin, Rodolfo Rocca, Francesca Rogai, Gerhard Rogler, Agnes Salamon, Ennaliza Salazar, Zoltan Sallo, Sunil Samuel, Miquel de Los Santos Sans Cuffi, Edoardo Vincenzo Savarino, Vincenzo Savarino, Guillaume Savoye, Stefan Schreiber, Andrada Seicean, Christian Selinger, David Martins Serra, Hang Hock Shim, SungJae Shin, Britta Siegmund, Jesse Siffledeen, Wayne Simmonds, Jan Smid, Jose Sollano, Geun Am Song, Alexander Speight, Ioan Sporea, Dirk Staessen, George Stancu, Alan Steel, David Stepek, Victor Stoica, Andreas Sturm, Gyorgy Szekely, Teck Kiang Tan, Carlos Taxonera Samso, John Thomson, Michal Tichy, Gabor Tamas Toth, Zsolt Tulassay, Marcello Vangeli, Marta Varga, Ana Vieira, Stephanie Viennot, Erica Villa, Petr Vitek, Harald Vogelsang, Petr Vyhnalek, Peter Wahab, Jens Walldorf, Byong Duk Ye, Christopher Ziady
1Gastroenterology and Endoscopy, IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele and University Vita-Salute San Raffaele, Milan, Italy.
2Icahn School of Medicine, Mount Sinai, New York City, NY, USA.
3Clinical and Research Centre for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, ISCARE IVF Clinical Center Ceskomoravská, Prague, Czech Republic.
4Gastroenterology Unit, Hospital Universitario de La Princesa, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Princesa, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas, Madrid, Spain.
5Department of Gastroenterology, Imelda Hospital, Amsterdam University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
6King's College Hospital Denmark Hill London, London, UK.
7University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.
8Department of Internal Medicine 20, Yonsei University, Wonju, South Korea.
9Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
10Roche, Welwyn Garden City, UK.
11Genentech, South San Francisco, CA, USA.
12Christian-Albrechts University, Kiel, Germany. Electronic address: email@example.com.
Background: Etrolizumab is a gut-targeted anti-β7 integrin monoclonal antibody. In a previous phase 2 induction study, etrolizumab significantly improved clinical remission versus placebo in patients with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis. We aimed to compare the safety and efficacy of etrolizumab with infliximab in patients with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis.
Methods: We conducted a randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group, phase 3 study (GARDENIA) across 114 treatment centres worldwide. We included adults (age 18-80 years) with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis (Mayo Clinic total score [MCS] of 6-12 with an endoscopic subscore of ≥2, a rectal bleeding subscore of ≥1, and a stool frequency subscore of ≥1) who were naive to tumour necrosis factor inhibitors. Patients were required to have had an established diagnosis of ulcerative colitis for at least 3 months, corroborated by both clinical and endoscopic evidence, and evidence of disease extending at least 20 cm from the anal verge. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive subcutaneous etrolizumab 105 mg once every 4 weeks or intravenous infliximab 5 mg/kg at 0, 2, and 6 weeks and every 8 weeks thereafter for 52 weeks. Randomisation was stratified by baseline concomitant treatment with corticosteroids, concomitant treatment with immunosuppressants, and baseline disease activity. All participants and study site personnel were masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who had both clinical response at week 10 (MCS ≥3-point decrease and ≥30% reduction from baseline, plus ≥1-point decrease in rectal bleeding subscore or absolute rectal bleeding score of 0 or 1) and clinical remission at week 54 (MCS ≤2, with individual subscores ≤1); efficacy was analysed using a modified intention-to-treat population (all randomised patients who received at least one dose of study drug). GARDENIA was designed to show superiority of etrolizumab over infliximab for the primary endpoint. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02136069, and is now closed to recruitment.
Findings: Between Dec 24, 2014, and June 23, 2020, 730 patients were screened for eligibility and 397 were enrolled and randomly assigned to etrolizumab (n=199) or infliximab (n=198). 95 (48%) patients in the etrolizumab group and 103 (52%) in the infliximab group completed the study through week 54. At week 54, 37 (18·6%) of 199 patients in the etrolizumab group and 39 (19·7%) of 198 in the infliximab group met the primary endpoint (adjusted treatment difference -0·9% [95% CI -8·7 to 6·8]; p=0·81). The number of patients reporting one or more adverse events was similar between treatment groups (154 [77%] of 199 in the etrolizumab group and 151 [76%] of 198 in the infliximab group); the most common adverse event in both groups was ulcerative colitis (55 [28%] patients in the etrolizumab group and 43 [22%] in the infliximab group). More patients in the etrolizumab group reported serious adverse events (including serious infections) than did those in the infliximab group (32 [16%] vs 20 [10%]); the most common serious adverse event was ulcerative colitis (12 [6%] and 11 [6%]). There was one death during follow-up, in the infliximab group due to a pulmonary embolism, which was not considered to be related to study treatment.
Interpretation: To our knowledge, this trial is the first phase 3 maintenance study in moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis to use infliximab as an active comparator. Although the study did not show statistical superiority for the primary endpoint, etrolizumab performed similarly to infliximab from a clinical viewpoint.
Funding: F Hoffmann-La Roche.