Prevalence of Pulmonary Diseases in Association with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Dig Dis Sci. 2022 Feb 10. doi: 10.1007/s10620-022-07385-z. Online ahead of print.

Gayatri Pemmasani 1Edward V Loftus 2William J Tremaine 2


Author information

1Department of Medicine, SUNY Upstate Medical Center, Syracuse, NY, USA. gpemmasani0524@gmail.com.

2Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.


Background: Prior reports from small studies suggested an increased prevalence of respiratory diseases in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Large population-based contemporary studies evaluating this association are lacking.

Methods: In this retrospective observational cohort study utilizing the US Nationwide Readmissions Database year 2014, IBD patients ≥ 15 years of age were identified. Outcomes analyzed were the differences in the rates of diagnosed respiratory diseases between IBD and age- and sex-matched non-IBD control groups, and between patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn disease (CD).

Results: The IBD study cohort and the matched non-IBD control group had 87,506 patients each (mean age, 52 years; 57% females). In patients with IBD, obstructive respiratory diseases were the most prevalent (asthma, 8.6%; and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 8.7%) followed by pleural diseases (1.9%). Compared with the non-IBD cohort, patients with IBD had a 46% higher rate of bronchiectasis, 52% higher rate of pulmonary vasculitis and interstitial pneumonia, 35% higher risk for lung nodules, 16% higher rate of pulmonary fibrosis, and a 5.5% higher rate of asthma. Among patients with IBD, patients with CD, compared with UC, had a 34% lower age/sex-adjusted risk for bronchiectasis, 56% lower risk for pulmonary vasculitis, 14% lower risk for pleural diseases, and approximately 30% higher risk for chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases.

Conclusion: In this large population-based cohort study, patients with IBD had higher rates of certain respiratory diseases compared with the general population without IBD, and significant differences were present between CD and UC.

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