Abstract

Pregnant women with immune mediated inflammatory diseases who discontinue biologics have higher rates of disease flare

Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2022 Mar 6. doi: 10.1007/s00404-022-06463-x. Online ahead of print.

Kenneth D Allen 1, Miranda K Kiefer 2, Madalina Butnariu 1 3, Anita Afzali 4 5 6

 
     

Author information

1Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA.

2Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA.

3Inflammatory Bowel Disease Center, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA.

4Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA. Anita.Afzali@osumc.edu.

5Inflammatory Bowel Disease Center, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA. Anita.Afzali@osumc.edu.

6Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition OSU Inflammatory Bowel Disease Center, Abercrombie and Fitch Endowed Chair in Inflammatory Bowel Disease, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 3721 Ridge Mill Dr, Hilliard, OH, 43026, USA. Anita.Afzali@osumc.edu.

Abstract

Background and aims: Biologic agents have revolutionized treatment of immune mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs). However, despite the benefits of treatment, there is limited data on its use during pregnancy leading to significant variation in practices. We evaluated maternal, neonatal, and disease-related outcomes in pregnant women with IMIDs, comparing those with biologic exposure during pregnancy to those without exposure. Our hypothesis was that there would be no difference in outcomes between the two groups.

Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study conducted at a single tertiary care center including women with Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), or psoriasis/psoriatic arthritis (PS/PsA) who delivered between 2010 and 2018 at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center. Conditions were identified by ICD-9/ICD-10 code and confirmed by chart review. Demographic data, pregnancy outcomes and disease-related data were collected.

Results: There were 338 pregnancies including 100 with CD, 74 with UC, 15 with AS, 61 with RA, and 90 with PS/PsA. 23% of IMID patients had biologic exposure (biologic use within 3 months of conception) and 18% continued therapy during pregnancy. Those with biologic exposure had increased risk of post-partum disease flare (OR 3.44; 95% CI 1.29, 9.15) and were less likely to breastfeed (OR 0.44; 95% CI 0.23, 0.87). In subgroup analysis of patients with IBD, those with biologic exposure also had increased risk of post-partum flare (OR 4.55; 95% CI 1.27, 16.35). Maternal and neonatal pregnancy outcomes were similar.

Conclusion: Among pregnant women with IMIDs, those that continued biologics during pregnancy had increased rates of major infection, disease related hospital admission, glucocorticoid use, and disease flare within 6 months post-partum, without any significant change in maternal or neonatal outcomes.

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