Different renal manifestations associated with very early onset pediatric inflammatory bowel disease: case report and review of literature

BMC Nephrol. 2021 Apr 22;22(1):146. doi: 10.1186/s12882-021-02358-2.

A Angeletti 1, S Arrigo 2, A Madeo 2, M Molteni 3, E Vietti 3, L Arcuri 3, M C Coccia 4, P Gandullia 2, G M Ghiggeri 3 5


Author information

  • 1Division of Nephrology, Dialysis, and Transplantation, IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genoa, Italy. andreaangeletti@gaslini.org.
  • 2Pediatric Gastroenterology Unit, IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genoa, Italy.
  • 3Division of Nephrology, Dialysis, and Transplantation, IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genoa, Italy.
  • 4Department of Pathology, IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genoa, Italy.
  • 5Laboratory of Molecular Nephrology, IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genoa, Italy.


Background: Inflammatory bowel diseases are characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. In particular, Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis represent the two most common types of clinical manifestations. Extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel diseases represent a common complications, probably reflecting the systemic inflammation. Renal involvement is reported in 4-23% of cases. However, available data are limited to few case series and retrospective analysis, therefore the real impact of renal involvement is not well defined.

Case presentation: We report the case of a 10-years old male affected by very early onset unclassified-Inflammatory bowel diseases since he was 1-year old, presenting with a flare of inflammatory bowel diseases associated with acute kidney injury due to granulomatous interstitial nephritis. Of interest, at 7-year-old, he was treated for IgA nephropathy. To our knowledge, no previous reports have described a relapse of renal manifestation in inflammatory bowel diseases, characterized by two different clinical and histological phenotypes.

Conclusions: The link between the onset of kidney injuries with flares of intestinal inflammation suggest that nephritis maybe considered an extra-intestinal manifestation correlated with active inflammatory bowel disease. However, if granulomatous interstitial nephritis represents a cell-mediated hypersensitivity reaction than a true extraintestinal manifestation of inflammatory bowel diseases is still not clarified. We suggest as these renal manifestations here described may be interpreted as extraintestinal disorder and also considered as systemic signal of under treatment of the intestinal disease.

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