Abstract

Outcomes of Initial Subtotal Colectomy for Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease

J Surg Res. 2020 Nov;255:319-324. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2020.05.026. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Naomi-Liza Denning 1, Michelle P Kallis 1, Charlotte L Kvasnovsky 2, Aaron M Lipskar 3

 
     

Author information

  • 1Division of Pediatric Surgery, Cohen Children's Medical Center, Northwell Health System, New York, New York; Department of Surgery, Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell Health System, Manhasset, New York.
  • 2Division of Pediatric Surgery, Cohen Children's Medical Center, Northwell Health System, New York, New York.
  • 3Division of Pediatric Surgery, Cohen Children's Medical Center, Northwell Health System, New York, New York; Department of Surgery, Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell Health System, Manhasset, New York. Electronic address: Alipskar@northwell.edu.

Abstract

Background: Subtotal colectomy with end ileostomy (STC-I) has been well established in the adult literature as an initial surgical treatment for refractory inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-related colitis. However, in the pediatric population, the efficacy of this approach has been less well characterized, likely because of concerns regarding the advisability of leaving a diseased rectum in situ. Our aim was to examine the outcomes after STC-I for refractory IBD at our pediatric tertiary care center.

Methods: An institutional review board-approved retrospective review of patients aged 5-21 y who underwent operative treatment with initial STC-I for medically refractory IBD from January 2010 to August 2018. Only complications related to the STC-I were considered; complications subsequent to reconstruction are excluded from analysis. Early complications were defined as occurring within 60 d of STC-I. We performed descriptive statistics using the Fisher exact test and the Student t-test, as appropriate.

Results: Over the study period, 37 patients (aged 12.3 ± 4.2 y) underwent STC-I, with 73.0% performed laparoscopically. Patients were predominately male (51.4%) and Caucasian (48.6%). Thirty-one (83.8%) colectomies were performed for ulcerative colitis, two (5.4%) for Crohn disease, and four (10.8%) for indeterminate colitis. Nutritional status improved postcolectomy. Albumin levels of 3.3 ± 0.8 preoperatively increased to 4.3 ± 0.47 postoperatively (P < 0.001). Colonic bleeding was stopped by STC-I with increases in the hematocrit from 30.5 ± 6.8 preoperative to 38.9 ± 4.1 postoperatively (P < 0.001). Average time to discontinuation of IBD-related medications was 4 wk (n = 27). Forty-eight percent required outpatient rectal treatment for proctitis. Patients did well long term, with 67.5% reestablishing intestinal continuity at our institution. Average postoperative length of stay was shorter in the laparoscopic group compared with those undergoing open operations (5.1 ± 2.2 versus 6.9 ± 1.6 d, P = 0.03). Readmission rate at 30 d was 21.1%. Patients experiencing unplanned readmission or unplanned operations were similar between groups (30% versus 33.3%, P = 0.85 and 30% versus 18.5%, P = 0.45, respectively). Overall, 14 (37.8%) patients experienced a complication with many patients experiencing multiple complications. Early complications occurred in nine (24.3%) patients. Late complications also occurred in 24.3% of patients. There were four (10.8%) patients with five admissions for bowel obstruction, two of whom required operative intervention (5.4%).

Conclusions: Use of STC-I as an initial procedure in the treatment of refractory IBD-related colitis in children is a safe and reasonable surgical approach that allows weaning from immunosuppressing mediations and stops colonic bleeding. Implementing a laparoscopic approach to subtotal colectomy provides further benefit by reducing postoperative length of stay.

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