Abstract

Inflammatory Diseases and Growth: Effects on the GH-IGF Axis and on Growth Plate

Cirillo F1, Lazzeroni P2, Sartori C3, Street ME4. Int J Mol Sci. 2017 Aug 31;18(9). pii: E1878. doi: 10.3390/ijms18091878.
 
     
Author information

1 Division of Paediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Paediatrics, Azienda AUSL-IRCCS, Viale Risorgimento, 80, 42123 Reggio Emilia, Italy. francesca.cirillo@ausl.re.it. 2 Division of Paediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Paediatrics, Azienda AUSL-IRCCS, Viale Risorgimento, 80, 42123 Reggio Emilia, Italy. pietro.lazzeroni@ausl.re.it. 3 Division of Paediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Paediatrics, Azienda AUSL-IRCCS, Viale Risorgimento, 80, 42123 Reggio Emilia, Italy. chiara.sartori@ausl.re.it. 4 Division of Paediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Paediatrics, Azienda AUSL-IRCCS, Viale Risorgimento, 80, 42123 Reggio Emilia, Italy. mariaelisabeth.street@ausl.re.it.

Abstract

This review briefly describes the most common chronic inflammatory diseases in childhood, such as cystic fibrosis (CF), inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) that can be considered, as such, for the changes reported in the placenta and cord blood of these subjects. Changes in growth hormone (GH) secretion, GH resistance, and changes in the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system are described mainly in relationship with the increase in nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Changes in the growth plate are also reported as well as a potential role for microRNAs (miRNAs) and thus epigenetic changes in chronic inflammation. Many mechanisms leading to growth failure are currently known; however, it is clear that further research in the field is still warranted.

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